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Moscow Tour

Ostankino TV placed in Moscow tower is the second tallest structure in the world (539 m; the tower in Toronto is 555 m). It was built in Moscow in 1967 under supervision of the chief designer, engineer Nikolay Nikitin. Apart from engineering facilities, there is a viewing platform in the tower, as well as a restaurant of three floors called The Seventh Heaven, which forms sort of a collar that slowly rotates around the axis of the tower, so that the visitors may see the whole northern area of Moscow from different angles. In 2000, a horrible fire occurred inside the tower. After reconstruction the tower is believed to become the tallest in the world. It will gain several extra-meters and reach the height of 562 m.

The next Moscow tour point is Manezhnaja Square. It's name originates from Manege, 19 century monument architecture situated here. In the 16 century the St Moses Convent was situated here. In the early 18th century on the orders of Peter the First Okhotny Ryad shops were transferred to the convent. In 1997 the biggest Europe modern underground trade center with shops, restaurants and cafes was built here to the 850th anniversary of the victory of Napoleon. Initially Manege was used for military reviews and trainings. From 1831 it was used for exhibitions, concerts and fetes. After 1917 it housed the government garage. In 1957 it was transformed into the Central Exhibition Hall.

Resurrection (Voskresensky) Gates were the way to cross the Neglinnaya River and then to enter the Red Square directly from the Tverskaya Tsar Road (present Tverskaya street, central street of Moscow). It was destructed in the time of Stalin and reconstructed together with Iverskaya Chapel. The working miracles icon of Our Lady of Iver was put there. Merchants were praying there before the trade deal, students - before the exams. All emperors, who came to visit Moscow came to bow to the Moscow sanity and they did come for blessing right before their way back. Muscovite call it "Mother of Iberia". At the very entrance to the Red Square is the zero point of the whole Russia. All the roads have their starting point here. As it is situated right before the all-seeing eyes of "Mother of Iberia" there is a strong belief that if you stay right in the middle, close your eyes, make a wish and throw several coins over your head, you wish will come true.

The next Moscow Tour point

Cathedral of Kazan was built in 17th century at the expense of the tsar' family to mark the victory over the polish invaders. In 1936 the cathedral was demolished. In 1990 the reconstruction according to all existing measurements started and ended in 1993. This is the example of reconstruction of the old cathedral demolished in the Soviet time. Red Square is the main square of Moscow and the 4th largest square in the world. As far as you can see it is embraced by beautiful churches. For nearly 5 centuries it was Russia's national forum. Executions, the readings of royal edicts, proclamations of war victories took place here. Moscow is often called the "Third Rome" and they say that it stands on seven hills. Red Square is situated in Borovitsky hill - the most ancient and big one. When it appeared at the end of the XV century the word "krasny" Russian for red - in the Old Russian meant beautiful but not red, so the real name of the square should be Beautiful. For the first time this name was mentioned in the chronicles as a trading place as early as 1434. Later it become the scene of military parades and mass festivities just outside the Kremlin walls. In the 19th century the monument to Minin and Pozharsky was built here. In 1900 first trams set going along the Kremlin walls. Then in 1930 the rails were removed.

After the October Revolution the square became the place, where parades and demonstrations took place. In 1930 it was covered with paving blocks, the Kazan Cathedral and Resurrection Gates were demolished for that purpose to be restored in 1994-1996. Present day Red Square is not only the symbol of Russia-All-Mighty in the whole world, but also the center of the capital's cultural life. Since 1990 concerts and fetes are frequent occasion here. World celebrities give their concerts: it has seen Luciano Pavarotti, Placido Domingo, Montserrat Caballier and Mstislav Rostropovich and many others. Probably in was as early as 16th century that there appeared Lobnoe mesto. The most important decrees and sentences were proclaimed in there, patriarchs and tsars addressed people and even the there. Public executions have been taking place for many centuries at this very point.

Special Moscow Tour

Mausoleum of Lenin Although there recently have been many discussion about burying Lenin's embalmed body finally, saying that is barbaric to keep the corps in the center of the city. Lenin's Mausoleum is still open to the public. However, the changing of the guards in front of the Mausoleum, the ritual which is used to attract many sightseers, was discounted in 1993. As for Lenin and his role in Russian history, it is a remarkable fact, which was kept in a secret for a long time, that when the autopsy was performed over the body, they saw that the left hemisphere of his brain was not larger, than a beam. This underdevelopment of brain in naturally born and usually means that the person is insane. Moscow Kremlin is a symbol of Russian statehood, the oldest part of Moscow, the residence of the President of Russia. The Museum which is situated on its territory has been included in the list of cultural and natural heritage of UNESCO. In Kremlin many great events of the Russian history took place. There are three main cathedrals, each of them has its own purpose. The Assumption cathedral was the place where all Russian Tsars and Emperors were crowned and enthroned since 1547, the year when Ivan the Terrible first was crowned. All ceremonial public prayers were held here as well to mark important historical events. The Archangel Cathedral was the burial place of Moscow rulers since 1333. Here are the tombs of great Russian tsars Ivan 3, Ivan the Terrible, Michael and Alexis Pomanovs from the last dynasty of Russian tsars killed by communists in the small city of Ekaterinburg. There is the bell-tower of Ivan the Great built in 1508 with its belfry and gilded dome. Kremlin is surrounded by a thick fortress wall, containing 20 towers, raised at the end of the XV century. Each tower has its own name and purpose. The Sonakina tower, designed to withstand sieges, contains a secret escape passage. The Tatyaninskaya tower translates as the "Tower of Secrets", because it also had a subterranean passage, leading to the river. The Nabatnaya Tower contained an alarm bell, that rang in times of danger. The Water-Hoist tower conveyed water to Kremlin. The tallest of all towers is Trinity Gate. Now along the Kremlin walls many statesmen are buried. There is also the tomb of Jury Gagarin the first man who conquered the space in 1957.

Moscow Kremlin is a symbol of Russia, the oldest part of Moscow. The residence of the President of Russia is located within its walls. The Kremlin has been reconstructed many times. The present red brick walls and towers were raised at the end of the XV century. The center of the Kremlin is its Cathedral Square (Sobornaya ploschad), the oldest in Moscow. It got its name due to the cathedrals around it: Arckhangelsky, Blagoveschensky (Annunciation) and Uspensky (Assumption), where coronation of all Tsars and Emperors took place. Besides the cathedrals, there is the bell-tower of Ivan the Great built in 1508 with its belfry and gilded dome. In front of the bell-tower, on a stone pedestal, the is raised, the largest one in the world. Its weight is about 200 tons. A little farther, there is the , cast in 1586, whose weight is 40 tons. Neither of them has ever been used for the intended purpose, so they are famous not only for their size but also for the fact that the Tsar-Bell has never rung and the Tsar-Cannon has never fired.

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